Rice Unconventional Wisdom

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George Sher

Professional Experience

Fairleigh Dickinson University
    Instructor, Philosophy 1966-72 (full-time after 1968)
    Assistant Professor, Philosophy 1972-74 (tenured 1974)

University of Vermont
    Associate Professor, Philosophy 1974-80 (tenured 1978)
    Professor, Philosophy, 1980-91
    Acting Chair, Department of Philosophy, 1985-86

Rice University
    Herbert S. Autrey Professor of Philosophy, 1991-
    Chair, Department of Philosophy, 1993-2000



Desert, Princeton University Press, 1987; paperback, 1989.

Beyond Neutrality: Perfectionism and Politics, Cambridge University Press, 1997. Chinese edition (Hebei People's Publishing House) forthcoming.

Approximate Justice: Studies in Non-Ideal Theory, Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

In Praise of Blame, Oxford University Press, 2006.

Who Knew?  Responsibility Without Awareness, Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2009.

 Equality for Inegalitarians, Cambridge University Press, 2014  


Moral Philosophy: Selected Readings, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987; 2nd ed. 1995.

Reason at Work: Introductory Readings in Philosophy, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984; 2nd ed. 1989; 3d ed. 1995. Co-editors Steven M. Cahn and Patricia Kitcher (all editions) and Peter Markie (3d edition).

Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Readings, Harcourt Brace, 1999. Co-editor Baruch Brody

Ethics: Essential Readings in Moral Theory, Routledge, 2012


"Reasons and Intensionality," The Journal of Philosophy, March 27, 1969.

"Causal Explanation and the Vocabulary of Action," Mind, January, 1973.

"Justifying Reverse Discrimination in Employment," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Winter, 1975. Reprinted in [ PDF ]

         Marshall Cohen, Thomas Nagel, and Thomas Scanlon, eds., Equality and Preferential Treatment, Princeton University Press,1977.

         Thomas M. Mappes and Jane Zembaty, eds., Social Ethics, McGraw-Hill, 1987.

         James Rachels, ed, Moral Problems, Harper & Row, 3rd edition, 1979.

         John Arthur, ed., Morality and Moral Controversy, Prientice-Hall, 1981.

         Cynthia C. Rostankowski and Manuel Velasquez, eds., Ethics: Theory and Practice, Prentice-Hall, 1984.

         Joan C. Callahan, ed., Ethical Issues in Professional Life, Oxford University Press, 1988.

         Steven M. Cahn, ed., The Affirmative Action Debate, Routledge, 1995.

         Francis J. Beckwith and Todd E. Jones, eds., Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Reverse Discrimination, Prometheus, 1997.

         Gurpreet Mahajan, ed., Democracy and Social Justice, Oxford University Press, 1998.

        James Rachels, ed., The Right Thing to Do: Basic Readings in Moral Philosophy, 2d ed, McGraw-Hill, 1999.

        Victoria Wike and Cynthia Brincat, eds., Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work, Prentice-Hall, 2000

"Charles Taylor on Purpose and Causation," Theory and Decision, February, 1975.

"Reasons, Causes, and Clear Cases," Southern Journal of Philosophy, Spring, 1975.

"Armstrong on Impossible Desires," Philosophical Studies, September, 1975.

"Sentences in the Brain?" Philosophy and Phenomenological Reserch, September, 1975.

"Groups and Justice," Ethics, January, 1977. Reprinted in:

         Gertrude Ezorsky, ed., Justice in the Workplace , S.U.N.Y. Press, 1986.

         Tom L. Beauchamp and Norman Bowie, eds. Ethical Theory and Business, Prentice-Hall, 1987.

"The Two-Vocabularies Argument Again," Mind, January, 1977.

"Hare, Abortion, and the Golden Rule," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Winter, 1977.

"An Unsolved Problem About Punishment," Social Theory and Practice, Spring, 1977.

"Kripke, Cartesian Intuitions, and Materialism," Canadian Journal of Philosophy, June, 1977.

"Armstrong and the Interdependence of the Mental," The Philosophical Quarterly, July, 1977.

"Effort, Ability, and Personal Desert," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Summer, 1979. Reprinted in:

         Henry Richardson and Paul Weithman, eds., The Philosophy of Rawls, Garland, 1999.

"Compensation and Transworld Personal Identity," The Monist, July, 1979.

"Reverse Discrimination, the Future, and the Past," Ethics, October, 1979. Reprinted in:

         Ralph W. Clark, ed., Introduction to Moral Reasoning, West Publishing Co., 1987.

         G. Lee Bowie, Kathleen Higgins, and Meredith Michaels, eds., Thirteen Questions in Ethics, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1997.

         Elaine D. Ingulli and Terry Ann Halbert, ed., Law, Ethics, and Responsibility (abridged),  West Legal Studies (3d ed.),1999.

"What Makes a Lottery Fair?", Noûs, May, 1980. [ PDF ] Reprinted in:

     Peter Stone, ed., Lotteries in Public Life: A Reader, Imprint Academic, forthcoming
 "Moral Relativism Defended?" Mind, October, 1980.

"Ancient Wrongs and Modern Rights," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Winter, 1981. Reprinted in: [ PDF ]
         Richard L. Purtill, ed., Moral Dilemmas, Wadsworth, 1984.

         Peter Laslett and James Fishkin eds., Philosophy, Politics and Society, Sixth Series, Yale University Press, 1992.

        Lukas Meyer, ed., Historical Justice, Nomos, 2004.

         Ronald Paul Sulzberger and Mary C. Turck, eds., Reparations for Slavery: A Reader, Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

"Subsidized Abortion: Moral Rights and Moral Compromise," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Fall, 1981.

"Moral Education and Indoctrination," The Journal of Philosophy, November, 1982 (co- author William J. Bennett). Reprinted in:

        Christina Hoff Sommers and Fred Sommers, eds., Vice and Virtue in Everyday Life, 2nd. ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989; Also reprinted in the 3d. edition, 1993 and the 4th edition, 2001.

        Francis J. Beckwith, ed., Do the Right Thing, Jones and Bartlett, 1996.

        James Halpin, ed., Good Conversation, McGraw-Hill/Primis, forthcoming.

"Comment on R. Taylor, 'Agent and Patient: Is There a Difference?'" Erkenntnis, October, 1982.

"Why the Past Matters," Philosophical Studies, 43 (1983).

"Our Preferences, Ourselves," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Winter, 1983. Reprinted in:

       Joseph L. DeVitis, ed., Women, Culture, and Morality: Selected Essays, Peter Lang, 1987.

        Richard J. Arneson, ed., Liberalism , Elgar Publishing Company, 1992.

"Health Care and the 'Deserving Poor,'" Hastings Center Report, March, 1983.

"Antecedentialism," Ethics, October, 1983.

"Preferential Hiring," in Tom Regan, ed., Just Business: New Introductory Essays in Business Ethics, Random House, 1984.

"Right-Violations and Injustices: Can We Always Avoid Trade-Offs?" Ethics, January, 1984.

"The U.S. Bishops' Position on Nuclear Deterrence: A Moral Assessment," in Douglas MacLean, ed., The Security Gamble: Deterrence Dilemmas in the Nuclear Age, Rowman-Allenheld, 1985.

"Other Voices, Other Rooms? Women's Psychology and Moral Theory," in Eva Kittay and Diana Meyers, ed., Women and Moral Theory, Rowman-Allenheld, 1987. Reprinted in:

         Christina Hoff Sommers, ed., Vice and Virtue in Everyday Life, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993.

        Jeffrey R. DiLeo, ed., Morality Matters: Race, Class, and Gender in Applied Ethics, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

"Predicting Performance," Social Philosophy and Policy, Fall, 1987. Republished in Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred D. Miller Jr., and Jeffrey Paul, eds., Equal Opportunity, Basil Blackwell, 1988.

"Qualifications, Fairness and Desert," in Norman E. Bowie, ed., Equality of Opportunity, Westview, 1988.

"Educating Citizens," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Winter 1989.

"Three Grades of Social Involvement," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Spring 1989. Reprinted in:

     The Philosopher's Annual, vol. XIII, eds. Patrick Grim, Gary Mar, and Peter Williams, Ridgeview Publishing Company, 1989. [ PDF ]  

"Knowing About Virtue," Nomos XXXIV: Virtue, eds., John W. Chapman and William A. Galston, New York University Press, 1992.

"Liberal Neutrality and the Value of Autonomy," Social Philosophy and Policy, Winter 1995. Republished in Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred D. Miller, and Jeffrey Paul, eds., Contemporary Social and Political Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, 1995. reprinted in:

         Geoff Smith, ed., Liberalism: Critical Assessments, Routledge, 2003.

         Ying Qi, ed., Liberal Neutrality and its Critics, Jiangsu People's Publishing House (Chinese translation,  forthcoming).

         Diane Jeske and Richard Fumerton, ed.,  Readings in Political Philosoophy: Theory and Applications (Broadview Press, 2011) 

"Rights, Neutrality and the Oppressive Power of the State," Law and Philosophy, May 1995.

"My Profession and Its Duties," The Monist, October 1996. [ PDF ] Reprinted in:

         Robin Barrow and Patrick Keeney, eds., Academic Ethics, Ashgate, 2006.

"Ethics, Character, and Action, Social Philosophy and Policy, Winter, 1998. Republished in Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred D. Miller, and Jeffrey Paul, eds., Virtue and Vice, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

"Diversity," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Spring, 1999. Reprinted in: [ PDF ]
         Louis Pojman, ed., Political Philosophy: A Reader, McGraw-Hill, 2001.

         Steven M. Cahn, ed., The Affirmative Action Debate, 2nd ed., Routledge, 2002.

          Tom Beauchamp and Norman Bowie, eds., Ethical Theory and Business, seventh edition, 2003

"But I Could Be Wrong," Social Philosophy and Policy,Summer, 2001. Republished in Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred D. Miller, and Jeffrey Paul, eds., Moral Knowledge, Cambridge University Press, 2001. Reprinted in:

         Russ Shafer-Landau, ed., Ethical Theory: An Anthology, Blackwell, 2007.
         Russ Shafer-Landau, ed., Metaethics:  Critical Concepts in Philosophy, Routledge, 2008.

"Blame for Traits," Noûs, March 2001. [ PDF ]

"Blameworthy Action and Character," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, March 2002.

"Freedom of Expression in the Non-Neutral State," in George Klosko and Steven Wall, eds., Perfectionism and Neutrality: Essays in Liberal Theory, Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

"Effort and Imagination," in Serena Olsaretti, ed., Essays on Justice and Desert, Oxford University Press, 2003. [ PDF ] 

"Should Drugs Be Legalized?" Criminal Justice Ethics, Winter/Spring 2003. Reprinted in:

       Hugh T. Wilson, ed., Annual Editions: Drugs, Society, and Behavior, 2005/06

"Transgenerational Compensation,"   Philosophy and Pubic Affairs, Spring 2005. Reprinted in:

      Lukas Meyer, ed., Intergenerational Compensation, Ashgate, 2012.

 "Kantian Fairness," Philosophical Issues (Nous annual supplementary volume), 2005.

"Out of Control," Ethics, January  2006. [ PDF ]
 "Five Questions on Political Philosophy" in Morton Ebbe Juul Nielsen, ed., Political Questions, Automatic Press, 2006.

 "Who's In Charge Here?  Reply to Neil Levy,"  Philosophia, June 2008

"Global Norming:  An Inconvenient Truth," in Robert B. Talisse and Maureen Eckert, ed.A Teacher's Life:  Essays for Steven M. Cahn, Lexington Books, 2009.  Reprinted as:
"The Letter-Writer's Dilemma" inSteven M. Cahn, ed., Moral Problems in Higher Education, Temple University Press, 2011
 "Responsibility and Practical Reason," in Joseph Campbell, Michael O'Rourke, and Harry Silverstein, eds., Responsibility, Ethics, and Action, MIT Press, 2010
"Real-World Luck Egalitarianism," Social Philosophy and Policy, Winter 2010. Reprinted in Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred D. Miller, and Jeffrey Paul, eds., Ownership and Justice, Cambridge University Press, 2010
        "Talents and Choices," Nous, September 2012.

         "Perfectionism and Equality: Further Thoughts," Ethical Perspectives, September 2012.
        "Wrongdoing and Relationships: The Problem of  the Stranger,: in Neil Tognazzini and Justin Coates, eds., Blame: Its Nature and Norms, Oxford University Press, 2013
        "Perfectionism and Democracy,: in Daniel Weinstock an dRoberto Merril, eds., Political Neutrality: A Reevaluation, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
      "Why We Are Moral Equals," in Uwe Steinhoff, ed., Do All Persons Have Equal Moral Worth?, Oxford University Press, 2015 (released in 2014).
     "Responsibility, Conversation, and Communication," in Randolph Clarke, Michael McKenna, and Angela Smith, ed., The Nature of Moral Responsibility, Oxford University press, 2015.



Introductory essays on Hobbes, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, and Mill, in Steven M. Cahn, ed., Classics of Western Philosophy, Hackett Publishing Co., 1977.

"Review of Andrew Woodfield, Teleology," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, September, 1977.

Introduction to John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism, Hackett Publishing Company, 1978; second edition 2001.

"Government Funding of Elective Abortions," in Marc D. Basson, ed., Rights and Responsibilities in Modern Medicine, Alan R. Liss, 1981.

"The Historical Dimension of Justice," in Randolph L. Braham, ed., Social Justice, Nijhoff, 1981.

"Review of R.M. Hare, Moral Thinking," Noûs, March 1984.

"Review of Russell Hardin, Morality Within the Limits of Reason," The Philosophical Review, October 1991.

"Merit and Desert," in Lawrence Becker and Charlotte Becker, eds., The Encyclopedia of Ethics, Garland Press, 1992; 2nd ed. forthcoming.

"Review of William A. Galston, Liberal Purposes," The Journal of Philosophy, January 1993.

"Review of Jean Hampton, Political Philosophy," The Philosophical Review, January 1999. 

"Review of Phillip Montague, Punishment as Societal Defense," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, June 1999.

"The Principle of Neutrality," in Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte Becker, eds., The Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd ed., Garland Press, 2001.

"Review of Colin Bird, The Myth of Liberal Individualism," Mind, January 2001.

"Review of David Boonin,  The Problem of Punishment, Ethics, July 2009.

"Review of Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift, Family Values, Social Theory and Practice, 2015

"Review of Neil Levy, Consciousness and Moral Responsibility, Mind, forthcoming.


"Groups and Justice"
    American Philosohical Association,PacificDivision,March,1976.

"Justification of Reverse Discrimination"
    Workshop on Philosophy and Public Policy, Annapolis, Maryland, July, 1978
    Workshop on Philosophy and Public Policy, Chestertown, Maryland, June, 1980
    Hampden-Sydney College, April, 1981

"Moral Relativism Defended?"
    American Philosophical Association, Western Division, April,1979.

"Government Funding of Elective Abortions"
    Fifth Conference on Ethics, Medicine, and Humanism, University of Michigan, March, 1980
    Lafayette College, April, 1980
    Guilford College, February, 1981
    North Carolina State University, April, 1981
    Hampden-Sydney College, April, 1981

"The Historical Dimension of Justice"
    Globus Conference on Social Justice, City College of New York, April, 1980

    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, February, 1981

"Comments on R. Taylor's 'Agent and Patient: Is There a Difference?'"
    Colloquium on Action Theory,University of North Carolina at Greensboro, March, 1981

"Health Care and the 'Deserving Poor"
    President's Commission on Medical Ethics, October, 1981.
    Queens College, CUNY, March, 1982

"Moral Education and Indoctrination"
    American  Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, December, 1982 (symposium paper, presented     with William J. Bennett).
    State University of New York at Plattsburgh, April, 1983

"Can We Avoid a Calculus of Right-Violations or Injustices?"
    Hamilton College, October, 1982
    American Philosohical Association, Western Division, April, 1983

"Comments on Brian Hehir, "Morality and Nuclear Deterrence"
    Conference on Nuclear Deterrence, University of Maryland, April, 1983

"Values, Morality, and Nuclear Deterrence"
    Conference on Nuclear Deterrnce: The Human Side, in Cheyenne and Casper,Wyoming,February 1984

"Other Voices, Other Rooms? Women's Psychological and Moral Theory"
    Conference on Women and Moral Theory, State University of New York at Stony Brook, March, 1985

"Comments on Jane Mansbridge, ' Equal Opportunity,'"
    Conference on Equal Opportunity, Center for the Study of Values, University of Delaware, May 1985

"Comments on Stephen White, 'Pathological Indifference,'"
    Society for Philosophy and Public Affairs, December 1986

"Three Grades of Social Involvement"
    Political Philosophy Colloquium, Princeton University, November 1987
    Studies in Political and Social Thought Seminar, Columbia University, February 1988.

"What Is Liberal Neutrality?"
    Institute for Advance Study, March 1988
    Hamilton College, November 1989

"Comments on G. F. Schueler, 'Modus Ponens and Moral Realism'"
    American Philosophical Association, Western Division, April 1988

"Liberal Neutrality: Some Problems,"
    American Political Science Association, September 1988

"Liberalism and the Communitarian Challenge,"
    University Scholar Lecture, University of Vermont, February 1989

"Moral Education and Autonomy,"
    Conference on the Teaching of Values in the Public Schools, University of Miami, February 1989
    Hamilton College, November 1989

"An Epistemology of the Virtues,"
    Association for Social, Political and Legal Philosophy (Nomos Association), December 1989

"Comments on Kenneth Baynes, 'Communicative Ethics and the Limits of Moral Theory'"
    American Philosophical Association, Central Division, April 1990

"Liberal Neutrality and the Value of Autonomy"
    North American Society for Social Philosophy, plenary address, August 1990
    Conference on Problems of Liberalism, Rice University, November 1991
    Texas Tech University, February 1992
    Conference on Problems of Social and Political Philosophy, San Diego, October 1993
    University of California at San Diego, October 1993.

"Comments on Luc Bovens, 'Contextual Pluralism and the Libertarian Paradox,"
    American Philosohical Association, Eastern Division, December 1991

"Prophylactic Neutrality"
    Texas Tech University, February 1992

"Compensating for the Effects of Communism: Some Temporal Considerations,"
    Conference on Restitution in Eastern Europe, Budapest, Hungary, June 1993

"Rights, Neurality, and the Oppressive Power of the State"
    Greensboro Symposium in Philosophy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, April, 1994.
    Southern Methodist University, April, 1994.

"Comments on David McCabe, 'Liberal Education Is Moral Education'"
    Association for Philosophy of Education, Boston, December 1994.

"Rawls, Autonomy, and the Neutral State,"
    American Political Science Association, San Francisco, August 1996.

"Ethics, Character, and Action,"
    Conference on Virtue and Vice, Bowling Green, Ohio, September 1996.
    University of Houston, December, 1997.

"My Profession and Its Duties,"
    University of Texas at Austin, November 1996.

    American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, December 1998.

"Comments on Gillian Brock, 'The New Nationalism,'"
    American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, March 1999.

"Liberty and Sexual Orientation" (panel discussion)
    Randolph-Macon Women's College, Lynchburgh, VA, September 1999.

"Blame for Traits"
    University of Kentucky, March 2000.
    28th Conference on Value Inquiry (plenary address), April 2000.

"Comments on Daniel Haybron, 'Does Happiness Reduce to Pleasure'"
    American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, April 2000.

"Anti-Neutralism and Freedom of Expression"
    American Political Science Association, August, 2000.

"Effort and Imagination"
    Conference on Desert and Justice, Cambridge, England, July 2001.

"Transgenerational Justice"
    Conference on Historical Justice, Potsdam, Germany, July 2001.
    Conference on Coming to Terms with the Past, University of California at Riverside, February-March      1993.
    Conference on Positive Discrimination, Copenhagen, Denmark, March 2005.

"When Good People Do Bad Things,"
    Keynote address, University of North Florida Student Philosophy Conference, Jacksonville, Florida, March     2002.
    Presidental address, Society for Value Inquiry, Washington, DC, December 2003.
    University of Wyoming, February 2005.

"Comments on Catherine Wilson, 'Functional Belief in a Just World'"
    Chapel Hill Colloquium, Chapel Hill, NC, October 2002.

"Comments on Doublas Husak, 'In Defense of the Legalization of Drugs"
    American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, December 2002.

"Moral Compromise,"
    National Institute of Health seminar, March 2004.

"What Blame is Not"
    Conference on Moral Psychology, University of Minnesota, April 2004.

"Out of Control"
    University of Wyoming, February 2004
    Southern Methodist University, April 2004.
    Brown University, May 2004.
    Rice University, October 2004.
    Colorado State University, April 2005.

"The Enforcement of Morals" (debate)
    United States Fifth Circuit Judicial Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 2005.

"Responsibility and Practical Reason"
    University of Toronto, March 2006
    Inland Northwest Philosophy Conference, Moscow, Idaho
    and Pullman, Washington, March 2006

"Objectivity and the Good,"
    Conference on Concepts and Objectivity, University of Pittsburgh, September 2006.

"Perfectionism and Democracy,"
    Conference on the Future of Democracy, College of William and Mary, October 2006.

"Reply to Critics"
      Author-Meets-Critics session on In Praise of Blame, American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, April 2007.

"Knew--Or Should Have Known?"
      Conference on Aristotle's Ethics Today, Humboldt University, Berlin, May 2007.
      University of British Columbia, October 2007.

"Real-World Luck Egalitarianism"
      Conference on Ownership and Justice, Social Philosophy and Policy Center, Bowling Green, Ohio, September 2008.

"Responsibility Without Awareness,"
      Distinguished Lecture Series, Mississippi State University, October 2008.

"Setting the Norms of Recognition"
      Workshop on Responsibility, Florida State University, January 2009.

"Talents and Choices"

     University of Arkansas, October 2009

     Davidson College, April 2010

     University of Calgary, October 2010

"Wrongdoing and Relationships: The Problem of the Stranger,"

       Texas A&M University, February 2010

"Replies to Critics,"

     Workshop on Beyond Neutrality: Perfectionism and Politics, University of Munich, March 2010

"Foundations of Luck Egalitarianism,"

    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, March, 2010.

    University of Vermont, November 2010

 "Comments o John Kekes, "The Dangerous Ideal of Autonomy,'" 

     Conference on Personal Autonomy, Political Philosophy, and Democracy, Dartmouth College, November 2010

"Why We Are Moral Equals,"

      Center for Human Values Colloquium, Princeton  University, December 2011

       Conference on Moral Equality, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, November 2012

        Union College, February, 2013

        University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, October 2013

        Keynote Address, Rocky Mountain Ethics Conference, Boulder, Colorado, August 2014

"Responsibility and Awareness," Working Papers Seminar on Responsibility, University of Southern California Law School, September 2012.

"Comments o Linda Zagzebski, "Moral Exemplars in Theory and Practice," Conference on Virtue and Education, Stanford University, October 2012

"Responsibility, Conversation, and Communication"

       Workshop on Moral Responsibility, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain, November 2012

         American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division meetings, San Francisco, March 2013

"How Does Inequality Justify Choice?" Conference on Equality and Public Policy, Ohio University, November 2013.

"Comments on Heather Battaly and Wayne Riggs, "Educating the Moral virtues," American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division Meetings, Baltimore, December 2013

"Morality and Blame," Wheaton College (Illinois), February 2014

"A Theory of Perfectionism," University of Keele (UK), June 2014

"Comments on Richard Arneson, 'Elitism', " Oxford Studies in Political Philosophy Conference, Columbia, MO, September 2014

"Comments on Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift, Family Values, Society for the Philosophy of Education, American Philosophical Association Eastern Division meetings, Philadelphia, December 2014